Archive for category Senior Health
J Nutr Healthy Aging ’07: All doses used in B. lactis dose-response trial in the elderly show benefit on intestinal flora
Ahmed M, Prasad J, Gill H, et al. Impact of consumption of different levels of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the intestinal microflora of elderly human subjects. J Nutr Health Aging 2007;11:26-31.
Age-related changes in the physiology and intestinal function of the elderly render them more susceptible to gut-related illnesses. Probiotic dietary supplementation has been shown to enhance the health indices in the elderly.
To determine the effect of three different doses [5 x 109 CFU/day (high), 1.0 x 109 CFU/day (medium) and 6.5 x 107 CFU/day (low)] of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10TM) on the intestinal flora of elderly human subjects and the dose response effect.
Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled human dietary intervention study consisting of four groups of 20 elderly (over 60 years old) volunteers. Each volunteer consumed 250 mL per day of reconstituted skim milk (RSM) which either did not contain any probiotic supplement (placebo group) or contained B. lactis HN019 at different levels (low, medium and high dose groups). The study comprised three stages: a 2-week pre-intervention (without any supplement), followed by 4 weeks of test feeding (dietary intervention) and then a 2-week washout period.
After dietary intervention, statistically significant increases in bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and enterococci were observed. At the end of the 4-week feeding period the mean number of bifidobacteria recorded in the placebo group were 9.31 +/- 0.01 log CFU/g of faeces. In the high, medium and low dose groups the bifidobacteria levels were significantly (p < 0.006) higher (9.88 +/- 0.1, 9.75 +/- 0.14 and 9.74 +/- 0.11 log CFU/g of faeces, respectively), when compared to the respective pre-intervention levels. There were no significant differences (p superior 0.05) between the responses of the different dose groups, indicating that even the lowest dose tested augmented the changes in bifidobacteria. Similar trends were observed for lactobacilli and enterococci. In contrast, the counts of enterobacteria were reduced in all the probiotic dose groups.
The present study showed that dietary supplementation with B. lactis HN019 significantly increased the number of resident bifidobacteria and reduced the enterobacteria counts. In addition, enterococci and lactobacilli were also increased. Based on this study and already published clinical evidence (4, 5, 8, 9) we conclude that, B. lactis HN019 is a suitable probiotic for elderly human subjects and even the lowest dose (6.5 x 107 CFU/day) tested is able to confer desired changes in the intestinal microflora.
Eur J Clin Nutr ’00: B. lactis shown to enhance natural immunity among health elderly in a controlled trial
Arunachalam K, Gill H, Chandra R. Enhancement of natural immune function by dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(3):263-267.
To determine the effects of dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (strain HN019, DR10) on natural immunity.
A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting:: Janeway Medical Centre, Memorial University, St Johns, Newfoundland. Subjects: Twenty-five healthy elderly volunteers (median age 69 y; range 60-83 y). Interventions: Twelve control subjects consumed 180 ml low-fat/low-lactose milk twice daily for a period of 6 weeks; 13 test subjects consumed milk supplemented with 1.5 × 1011 colony-forming units of B. lactis twice daily. Indices of natural immunity, including interferon production, phagocytic capacity and phagocyte-mediated bactericidal activity, were determined via peripheral blood at 0, 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-trial commencement.
Subjects who consumed milk containing B. lactis for 6 weeks produced significantly enhanced levels of interferon-alpha, upon stimulation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, in comparison to the placebo control group who received milk alone. There were also significant increases in polymorphonuclear cell phagocytic capacity among test group subjects, following consumption of milk supplemented with B. lactis, while individuals who consumed B. lactis-supplemented milk or milk alone showed enhanced phagocyte-mediated bactericidal activity.
The results demonstrate that dietary consumption of B. lactis HN019 can enhance natural immunity in healthy elderly subjects, and that a relatively short-term dietary regime (6 weeks) is sufficient to impart measurable improvements in immunity that may offer significant health benefits to consumers.
Pitkala K, Strandberg T, Soveri F, et al. Fermented cereal with specific bifidobacteria normalizes bowel movements in elderly nursing home residents. A randomized, controlled trial. J Nutr Health Aging 2007;11(4):305-311.
To assess how fermented oat drink with two selected Bifidobacterium longum strains influences bowel movements among elderly nursing home residents.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
12 wards in two nursing homes in Finland.
Wards were randomized to receive daily a fermented oat drink with 1) 109 CFU/day Bifidobacterium longum strains or 2) 109 CFU/day Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 3) without viable bacteria (placebo) for 7 months.
Regularity of bowel movements (no movements or functioning) and consistency of stools (normal, soft or diarrhoea) were recorded for each resident on a daily basis.
The fermented oat drinks were well taken by the subjects, compliance being 85%. The groups receiving active products had more frequent bowel movements than did the placebo group (B. longum group normal functioning 28.5% of follow-up days, B.lactis group 26.9%, and placebo group 20.0%, respectively). The differences between the B. longum and the placebo group (mean 7.1, 95% CI 2.3 – 11.9, p=0.004) and between the B.lactis group and the placebo (mean 6.7, 95% CI 2.5 – 10.9, p = 0.002) were significant even when diarrhoea and constipation in the 3 months prior to the study were used as covariates.
It is possible to normalize bowel movements in frail nursing home.
Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H, et al. Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly–a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res, 2007;86:125-130.
Overgrowth of oral yeast is a common problem among the elderly. Probiotic bacteria are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes.
We tested the hypothesis that cheese containing probiotic bacteria can reduce the prevalence of oral Candida. During this 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 276 elderly people consumed daily 50 g of either probiotic (n = 136) or control cheese (n = 140).
The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of a high salivary yeast count (>or= 10(4) cfu/mL) analyzed by the Dentocult method. The prevalence decreased in the probiotic group from 30% to 21% (32% reduction), and increased in the control group from 28% to 34%.
Probiotic intervention reduced the risk of high yeast counts by 75% (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.10-0.65, p = 0.004), and the risk of hyposalivation by 56% (OR = 0.44, 95%CI 0.19-1.01, p = 0.05).
Thus, probiotic bacteria can be effective in controlling oral Candida and hyposalivation in the elderly.
Min Gastro Diet ’11: Study reports probiotics help constipation in patients with Parkinson’s disease
Cassani E, Privitera G, Pezzoli G, et al. Use of probiotics for the treatment of constipation in Parkinson’s disease patients. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2011;57(2):117-121.
The aim of this paper was to assess the effects of milk fermented with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota on constipation in Parkinson’s disease patients. Constipation is a common secondary symptom in patients suffering from Parkinson’s Disease (PD), generally treated with dietary therapy, soluble fiber supplements and macrogol laxatives without sodium sulfate. There are no studies on the use of probiotics in the treatment of constipation in these patients. The effects of the administration of Lactobacillus casei Shirota on gastrointestinal symptoms have been assessed in two randomized controlled trials on patients suffering from chronic constipation.
Forty PD patients suffering from constipation according to Rome III criteria were recruited. We compared the characteristic of intestinal function during two periods with different treatments: in the first week the patients treated constipation only with dietetic therapy; in the following 5 weeks the patients treated constipation not only with dietetic therapy, but also taking a 65 mL fermented milk drink containing 6.5×109 CFU of Lactobacilus casei Shirota daily.They completed a daily diary for 6 weeks, recording details related to their intestinal function.
After probiotic intake we observed a statistically significant increase in the number of days per week in which stools were of normal consistency (P<0.01) and significant reductions in the number of days per week in which patients felt bloated (P<0.01), experienced abdominal pain (P<0.01) and sensation of incomplete emptying (P<0.01).
This pilot study showed that a regular intake of probiotics can significantly improve stool consistency and bowel habits in Parkinson’s disease patients.
Turchet P et al. Effect of fermented milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on winter infections in free-living elderly subjects: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Journal of Nutrition, Health, and Aging, 2003;7(2):75-77.
Probiotics are being increasingly studied for their ability to enhance host resistance to, and recovery from, infection. The probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 has previously been shown to reduce the incidence and duration of episodes of diarrhoea in children.
Our controlled pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation for 3 weeks with milk fermented with yoghurt cultures and L. casei DN-114001 on the incidence and severity of winter infections (gastrointestinal and respiratory) in elderly people. We found no difference in the incidence of winter infections between groups. However, duration of all pathologies was significantly lower in the treatment group (7.0 3.2 days, n=180) than in the control group (8.7 3.7 days; n=180) (p=0.024), as was maximal temperature (38.3 0.5 C treatment group vs. 38.5 0.6 C control; p=0.01).
The potential for a 20% reduction in the duration of winter infections that we have found warrants further investigation on a larger scale.
Guyonnet D, et al. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: A multicentre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Aug 1;26(3):475-486.
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been rarely evaluated as a primary endpoint in the assessment of the effect of probiotics on the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
AIM: To study the effects of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains on the IBS in a multicentre, double-blind, controlled trial.
METHODS: A total of 274 primary care adults with constipation-predominant IBS (Rome II) were randomized to consume for 6 weeks either the test fermented milk or a heat-treated yoghurt (control). HRQoL and digestive symptoms were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks on an intention-to-treat population of 267 subjects.
RESULTS: The HRQoL discomfort score, the primary endpoint, improved (P < 0.001) in both groups at weeks 3 and 6. The responder rate for the HRQoL discomfort score was higher (65.2 vs. 47.7%, P < 0.005), as was the decrease in bloating score [0.56 +/- (s.d.)1.01 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.87, P = 0.03], at week 3 in the test vs. the control group. In those subjects with <3 stools/week, stool frequency increased (P < 0.001) over 6 weeks in the test vs. control group.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a beneficial effect of a probiotic food on discomfort HRQoL score and bloating in constipation-predominant IBS, and on stool frequency in subjects with <3 stools/week.
Gill et al. Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001 Dec;74(6): 833-839.
BACKGROUND: The aging process can lead to a decline in cellular immunity. Therefore, the elderly could benefit from safe and effective interventions that restore cellular immune functions.
OBJECTIVE: We determined whether dietary supplementation with the known immunostimulating probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 could enhance aspects of cellular immunity in elderly subjects.
DESIGN: Thirty healthy elderly volunteers (age range: 63-84 y; median: 69 y) participated in a 3-stage dietary supplementation trial lasting 9 wk. During stage 1 (run-in), subjects consumed low-fat milk (200 mL twice daily for 3 wk) as a base-diet control. During stage 2 (intervention), they consumed milk supplemented with B. lactis HN019 in a typical dose (5 x 10(10) organisms/d) or a low dose (5 x 10(9) organisms/d) for 3 wk. During stage 3 (washout), they consumed low-fat milk for 3 wk. Changes in the relative proportions of leukocyte subsets and ex vivo leukocyte phagocytic and tumor-cell-killing activity were determined longitudinally by assaying peripheral blood samples.
RESULTS: Increases in the proportions of total, helper (CD4(+)), and activated (CD25(+)) T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were measured in the subjects’ blood after consumption of B. lactis HN019. The ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes and the tumoricidal activity of natural killer cells were also elevated after B. lactis HN019 consumption. The greatest changes in immunity were found in subjects who had poor pretreatment immune responses. In general, the 2 doses of B. lactis HN019 had similar effectiveness.
CONCLUSION: B. lactis HN019 could be an effective probiotic dietary supplement for enhancing some aspects of cellular immunity in the elderly.
FEMS Imm Med Micro ’03: RCT indicates statistically significant restoration of normal vaginal microflora with probiotic strain blend
Reid G, et al. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus significantly alters vaginal flora: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2003 20;35(2):131–134.
Urogenital infections afflict an estimated one billion people each year. The size of this problem and the increased prevalence of multi-drug resistant pathogens make it imperative that alternative remedies be found.
A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 64 healthy women given daily oral capsules of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 for 60 days showed no adverse effects. Microscopy analysis showed restoration from asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis microflora to a normal lactobacilli colonized microflora in 37% women during lactobacilli treatment compared to 13% on placebo (P=0.02).
Lactobacilli were detected in more women in the lactobacilli-treated group than in the placebo group at 28 day (P=0.08) and 60 day (P=0.05) test points. Culture findings confirmed a significant increase in vaginal lactobacilli at day 28 and 60, a significant depletion in yeast at day 28 and a significant reduction in coliforms at day 28, 60 and 90 for lactobacilli-treated subjects versus controls.
The combination of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 is not only safe for daily use in healthy women, but it can reduce colonization of the vagina by potential pathogenic bacteria and yeast.
McNaught, CE, et al. A prospective randomised trial of probiotics in critically ill patients. Clinical Nutrition 2005;24:211–219.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:
Probiotics exert a beneficial effect on the host through modulation of gastrointestinal microflora. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on gut barrier function and the systemic inflammatory response in critically ill patients.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
One hundred and three critically ill patients were randomised to receive an oral preparation containing L. plantarum 299v (ProViva) in addition to conventional therapy (treatment group, n = 52) or conventional therapy alone (control group, n = 51). Serial outcome measures included gastric colonisation, intestinal permeability (lactulose/rhamnose dual-sugar probe technique), endotoxin exposure (IgM EndoCAb), C-reactive protein and Interleukin 6 levels.
L. plantarum had no identifiable effect on gastric colonisation, intestinal permeability, endotoxin exposure or serum CRP levels. There were no differences between the groups in terms of septic morbidity or mortality. On day 15 serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower in the treatment group compared to controls.
The enteral administration of L. plantarum 299v to critically ill patients was associated with a late attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. This was not accompanied by any significant changes in the intestinal microflora, intestinal permeability, endotoxin exposure, septic morbidity or mortality.