Archive for category Fitness & Travel
Lomax A, Calder P. Probiotics, Immune Function, Infection and Inflammation: A Review of the Evidence from Studies Conducted in Humans. Cur Pharma Des 2009;15(13):1428-1518.
A number of studies have been performed examining the influence of various probiotic organisms, either alone or in combination, on immune parameters, infectious outcomes, and inflammatory conditions in humans.
Some components of the immune response, including phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunoglobulin A production (especially in children), can be improved by some probiotic bacteria. Other components, including lymphocyte proliferation, the production of cytokines and of antibodies other than immunoglobulin A appear less sensitive to probiotics.
Probiotics, including lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, administered to children can reduce incidence and duration of diarrhoea, but the precise effects depend upon the nature of the condition.
Probiotic supplementation can reduce the risk of travellers’ diarrhoea in adults, but does not affect duration. The effect of probiotics on other infectious outcomes is less clear.
Probiotics may benefit children and adults with irritable bowel syndrome and adults with ulcerative colitis; studies in Crohn’s Disease are less clear. Probiotics have little effect in rheumatoid arthritis.
Probiotic supplementation, especially with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, can reduce risk and severity of allergic disease, particular atopic dermatitis; early supplementation appears to be effective.
Overall, the picture that emerges from studies of probiotics on immune, infectious and inflammatory outcomes in humans is mixed and there appear to be large species and strain differences in effects seen. Other reasons for differences in effects seen will include dose of probiotic organism used, duration of supplementation, characteristics of the subjects studied, sample size, and technical differences in how the measurements were made.
Martarelli D, Verdenelli MC, Scuri S, et al. Effect of a probiotic intake on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in plasma of athletes during intense exercise training. Curr Microbiol, 2011;1689-1696.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 on oxidative stress in athletes during a four-week period of intense physical activity.
Two groups of twelve subjects each were selected for this analysis. The first group consumed a daily dose of a mixture of the two probiotic strains (1:1 L. rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502; ~10(9) cells/day) for 4 weeks. The second group (control) did not consume any supplements during the 4 weeks. Blood samples collected immediately before and after the supplementation were analyzed, and plasma levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and biological antioxidant potential were determined. Faeces were also collected and analyzed before and at the end of the probiotic supplementation. Antioxidative activity and oxidative stress resistance of the two strains were determined in vitro.
Results demonstrated that intense physical activity induced oxidative stress and that probiotic supplementation increased plasma antioxidant levels, thus neutralizing reactive oxygen species. The two strains, L. rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and L. paracasei IMC 502(®), exert strong antioxidant activity. Athletes and all those exposed to oxidative stress may benefit from the ability of these probiotics to increase antioxidant levels and neutralize the effects of reactive oxygen species.
Tubelius P, et al. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Environmental Health 2005;4:25.
Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730) on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.
262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers) that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo.
In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). The frequency of sick-days was 0.9% in the placebo group and 0.4% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). Among the 53 shift-workers, 33% in the placebo group reported sick during the study period as compared with none in the L. reuteri group(p < 0.005).
Kalliomäki M, et al. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(3):534-538.
Experimental studies suggest that gut microbiota deviations predispose toward energy storage and obesity.
We wanted to establish whether early gut microbiota composition can guide weight development throughout early childhood.
Overweight and obese children (n = 25) were selected from a prospective follow-up study at the age of 7 y and identified according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Normal-weight children (n = 24) were selected from the same cohort and matched for gestational age and body mass index at birth, mode of delivery, probiotic supplementation, duration of breastfeeding, use of antibiotics during infancy, and frequencies of atopic diseases and atopic sensitization. Early fecal microbiota composition was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with microscopic and flow cytometry detection and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
The bifidobacterial numbers in fecal samples during infancy, as assessed by the FISH with flow cytometry, were higher in children remaining normal weight, [median: 2.19 x 109 cells/g (interquartile range: 1.10–5.28 x 109cells/g)] than in children becoming overweight [1.20x 109 cells/g (0.48–1.59x109 cells/g); P = 0.02]. A similar tendency was found by FISH with microscopic detection and qRT-PCR. The microbiota aberrancy during infancy in children becoming overweight was also associated with a greater number of Staphylococcus aureus [0.64 x 106 cells/g (0.33–1.00x 106 cells/g)] than in children remaining normal weight [0.27 x 106 cells/g (0.17–0.50 x 106 cells/g);P = 0.013].
Aberrant compositional development of the gut microbiota precedes overweight, offering new possibilities for preventive and therapeutic applications in weight management.
von Sonnenburg F, et al. Risk and aetiology of diarrhoea at various tourist destinations. Lancet 2000;356:133–134.
Almost two of three tourists developed traveller’s diarrhoea during 2-week stays at high-risk destinations. Large differences in infection rates between hotels were seen. Patients with milder forms of diarrhoea show a similar chronology to those more severely affected. Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil was the most frequent cause, viral pathogens were detected more often than in other studies.
Luoto R, Kalliomäki M, Laitinen K,et al. The impact of perinatal probiotic intervention on the development of overweight and obesity: Follow-up study from birth to 10 years. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: The achievements in combating the increasing trend of overweight and obesity have thus far been inadequate. The recently discovered instrumental role of the gut microbiota in host metabolism may offer a novel target in the prevention and management of obesity.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of perinatal probiotic intervention on childhood growth patterns and the development of overweight during a 10-year follow-up.
Patients and methods: Altogether 159 women were randomized and double-blinded to receive probiotics (1 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53103) or placebo 4 weeks before expected delivery; the intervention extending for 6 months postnatally. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken at the ages of 3, 6, 12 and 24 months and at 4, 7 and 10 years in 113 (72%) children.
Results: The excessive weight gain was detected to be two-parted; the initial phase of excessive weight gain initiating during fetal period and continuing until 24-48 months of age and a second phase of excessive weight gain starting after the age of 24-48 months. The perinatal probiotic intervention appeared to moderate the initial phase of excessive weight gain, especially among children who later became overweight, but not the second phase of excessive weight gain, the impact being most pronounced at the age of 4 years (P=0.063, analysis of variance for repeated measures). The effect of intervention was also shown as a tendency to reduce the birth-weight-adjusted mean body mass index at the age of 4 years (P=0.080, analysis of covariance).
Conclusions: Early gut microbiota modulation with probiotics may modify the growth pattern of the child by restraining excessive weight gain during the first years of life. This novel observation calls for further epidemiological and clinical trials, with precise data on early growth patterns and on confounding factors influencing weight development.
Sato M, Uzu K, et al. Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 on adipocyte size in rats. Br J Nutr 2008; 99(5): 1013-1017.
Despite adequate scientific evidence of the potential benefits of probiotics to human health or disease prevention, their contribution to the growth of adipose tissue remains to be established.
Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing skim milk (control diet) or skim milk fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LGSP diet) for 4 weeks. Their body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, adipocyte size distribution profile, blood and hepatic lipids, and serum leptin, glucose and adiponectin levels were determined.
There was a significant reduction in average adipocyte size in mesenteric white adipose tissue (P = 0.004). Moreover, the rats fed the LGSP diet displayed greater numbers of small adipocytes from mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues than did those on the control diet. Whereas adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the groups, serum leptin concentrations were decreased to 32 % in the LGSP diet group compared with the control group. Concentrations of serum glucose and lipids, and liver lipids, except for the liver TAG level, were similar in the two groups.
These results indicate a possible role for a fermented milk product in the regulation of adipose tissue growth.
A Berggren, I Lazou Ahren, et al. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 2011;50(3):201-210.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 (DSM 15312) and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (DSM 13434) could affect naturally acquired common cold infections in healthy subjects.
A randomised, parallel, double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed to investigate whether intake of this probiotic mixture could reduce the risk of common cold episodes, number of days with common cold symptoms, frequency and severity of symptoms, and cellular immune response in common cold infections. A total of 272 subjects were supplemented daily with either 10(9) cfu (colony forming units) of probiotics (N = 135) or control (N = 137) for a 12-week period.
The incidence of acquiring one or more common cold episode was reduced from 67% in the control group to 55% in the probiotic group (p < 0.05). Also, the number of days with common cold symptoms were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 8.6 days in the control group to 6.2 days, in the probiotic group, during the 12-week period.
The total symptom score was reduced during the study period from a mean of 44.4 for the control group to 33.6 for the probiotic group. The reduction in pharyngeal symptoms was significant (p < 0.05). In addition, the proliferation of B lymphocytes was significantly counteracted in the probiotic group (p < 0.05) in comparison with the control group.
In conclusion, intake of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL 9 (DSM 15312) and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (DSM 13434) reduces the risk of acquiring common cold infections.
Kadooka Y, Sato M, et al. Regulation of abdominal adiposity by probiotics in adults with obese tendencies in a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010; 64(6): 636-643.
In spite of the much evidence for the beneficial effects of probiotics, their anti-obesity effects have not been well examined. We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other body measures in adults with obese tendencies.
We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Subjects (n=87) with higher body mass index (BMI) (24.2-30.7 kg/m(2)) and abdominal visceral fat area (81.2-178.5 cm(2)) were randomly assigned to receive either fermented milk (FM) containing LG2055 (active FM; n=43) or FM without LG2055 (control FM; n=44), and were asked to consume 200 g/day of FM for 12 weeks. Abdominal fat area was determined by computed tomography.
In the active FM group, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas significantly (P<0.01) decreased from baseline by an average of 4.6% (mean (confidence interval): -5.8 (-10.0, -1.7) cm(2)) and 3.3% (-7.4 (-11.6, -3.1) cm(2)), respectively. Body weight and other measures also decreased significantly (P<0.001) as follows: body weight, 1.4% (-1.1 (-1.5, -0.7) kg); BMI, 1.5% (-0.4 (-0.5, -0.2) kg/m(2)); waist, 1.8% (-1.7 (-2.1, -1.4) cm); hip, 1.5% (-1.5 (-1.8, -1.1) cm). In the control group, by contrast, none of these parameters decreased significantly. High-molecular weight adiponectin in serum increased significantly (P<0.01) in the active and control groups by 12.7% (0.17 (0.07, 0.26) microg/ml) and 13.6% (0.23 (0.07, 0.38) microg/ml), respectively.
The probiotic LG2055 showed lowering effects on abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures, suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders.
B J Sports Med ’06: Supplementing with lactobacillus acidophilus shown to improve recovery from fatigue in athletes
Clancy RL, Gleeson M, et al. Reversal in fatigued athletes of a defect in interferon gamma secretion after administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Brit J Sports Medicine 2006;40:351-354.
Background: Fatigue and impaired performance in athletes is well recognised and has been loosely linked to “overtraining”. Reduced concentration of IgA in the saliva and increased shedding of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) have been associated with intense training in elite athletes.
Objective: To determine whether athletes presenting with fatigue and impaired performance had an immune defect relevant to defective containment of EBV infection, and whether a probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus acidophilus) shown to enhance mucosal immunity in animal models could reverse any detected abnormality.
Results: The fatigued athletes had clinical characteristics consistent with re-activation of EBV infection and significantly (p = 0.02) less secretion of interferon (IFN) gamma from blood CD4 positive T cells. After one month of daily capsules containing 2 x 1010 colony forming units of L acidophilus, secretion of IFN gamma from T cells had increased significantly (p = 0.01) to levels found in healthy control athletes.
A significant (p = 0.03) increase in salivary IFN gamma concentrations in healthy control athletes after the one month course of L acidophilus demonstrated in man the capacity for this probiotic to enhance the mucosal IFN gamma concentration.
Conclusion: This is the first evidence of a T cell defect in fatigued athletes, and of its reversal following probiotic therapy.