Archive for category Immune Health
De Vrese M. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women: A review. Menopause International 2009;15(1):35-40.
Among the numerous positive effects of probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic carbohydrates observed in clinical studies–the majority of which, however, does not fulfil the criteria of pharmaceutical verification–some are of specific relevance to female health.
The present review addresses–besides some notes concerning the potential microbiota-hormone interactions–the first line with preventive and/or therapeutic applications of probiotic bacteria in order to maintain a balanced intestinal and urogenital flora, as well as in the case of irritable bowel syndrome, constipation (idiopathic slow-transit) and urogenital tract infections.
Further aspects are the promotion of bone health and osteoporosis prevention brought about by inulin, oligofructose and galactooligosaccharides. Some further conditions, namely anorexia nervosa, the premenstrual syndrome as well as prevention or alleviation of climacteric and menopausal disorders, for which the use of probiotics is rather hypothetical or is largely studied by alternative medicine practising physicians, are addressed briefly.
Inf Dis Obs Gyn ’07: Study assessing safety of using probiotic vaginal suppositories in women with recurrent urinary tract infections has good results
Czaja C, Stapleton A, Yarova-Yarovaya Y et al. Phase I trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol 2007;(35387):1-8.
We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI.
Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days.
30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms.
Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time.
L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal side effects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.
Hallén A, Jarstrand C, Påhlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19(3):146-148.
60 women with bacterial vaginosis were entered into a double blind, placebo-controlled treatment trial with lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus. The lactobacilli used were producing H2O2.
Immediately after completion of treatment, 16 out of 28 women who were treated with lactobacilli had normal vaginal wet smear results, in comparison to none of the 29 women treated with placebo.
All women harboured Bacteroides at inclusion. Bacteroides was eliminated from the vagina of 12 out of 16 healthy women after treatment. Only three of the women who received the Lactobacillus suppository were free of bacterial vaginosis after the subsequent menstruation.
Petricevic L et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral lactobacilli to improve the vaginal flora of postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008;141(1):54-57.
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the influence of the orally administered probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 on the quality of the vaginal flora in postmenopausal women.
Postmenopausal women with Nugent scores between 4 and 6 in initial vaginal swab, were randomized into two groups. Women in the intervention group received probiotic capsules containing 2.5×10(9)CFU (colony forming units) each of lyophilized L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 and women in the control group received an oral placebo once daily, in both groups for 14 days. Final vaginal swabs were taken 1 day after the last administration of the medication. The primary efficacy variable was a change in the Nugent score between baseline and the end of the study of at least two grades in each individual patient.
Seventy two women were recruited in the study, 35 assigned to the intervention group and 37 to the control group. Twenty-one of the 35 subjects (60%) in the intervention group and 6 of the 37 subjects (16%) in the control group showed a reduction in the Nugent score by at least two grades. The difference in the number of patients with improvement was highly significant (p=0.0001). The median difference in Nugent scores between baseline and the end of the study was 3 in the intervention group and 0 in the control group (p=0.0001).
Our results provide evidence for an alternative modality to restore the normal vaginal flora using specific probiotic strains administered orally.
Ya W, Reifer C, Miller L. Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203(2):120.e1-6.
We assessed the effectiveness of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention.
One hundred twenty healthy Chinese women with a history of recurrent BV were assigned randomly to daily vaginal prophylaxis with 1 capsule (Probaclac Vaginal; Nicar Laboratories, Inc, Blainville, Quebec, Canada) that contained 8 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (n = 58 women) or 1 placebo capsule (n = 62 women) for 7 days on, 7 days off, and 7 days on.
Probiotic prophylaxis resulted in lower recurrence rates for BV (15.8% [9/57 women] vs 45.0% [27/60 women]; P < .001) and Gardnerella vaginalis incidence through 2 months (3.5% [2/57 women] vs 18.3% [11/60 women]; P = .02). Between the 2- and 11-month follow-up period, women who received probiotics reported a lower incidence of BV and G vaginalis. Aside from vaginal discharge and malodor, no adverse events were reported in either study group.
Short-term probiotic prophylaxis is well tolerated and reduces BV recurrence and G vaginalis risk through 11 months after treatment.
Ped All Immun ’10: Maternal consumption of probiotic blend reduces eczema in infants at high risk of allergy during the first year of life
Kim J, Kwon J, Ahn S, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010;21:e386-e393.
Controversy exists regarding the preventive effect of probiotics on the development of eczema or atopic dermatitis. We investigated whether supplementation of probiotics prevents the development of eczema in infants at high risk.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 112 pregnant women with a family history of allergic diseases received a once-daily supplement, either a mixture of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4, B. lactis AD011, and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031, or placebo, starting at 4–8 wks before delivery and continuing until 6 months after delivery.
Infants were exclusively breast-fed during the first 3 months, and were subsequently fed with breastmilk or cow’s milk formula from 4 to 6 months of age.
Clinical symptoms of the infants were monitored until 1 yr of age, when the total and specific IgE against common food allergens were measured. A total of 68 infants completed the study.
The prevalence of eczema at 1 yr in the probiotic group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (18.2% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.048). The cumulative incidence of eczema during the first 12 months was reduced significantly in probiotic group (36.4% vs. 62.9%, p = 0.029); however, there was no difference in serum total IgE level or the sensitization against food allergens between the two groups.
Prenatal and postnatal supplementation with a mixture of B. bifidum BGN4, B. lactis AD011, and L. acidophilus AD031 is an effective approach in preventing the development of eczema in infants at high risk of allergy during the first year of life.
J Am Coll Nutr ’10: Significant improvements in immune health shown in stressed but healthy shift workers with supplementation of L. casei
Guillemard E, Tanguy J, Flavigny, et al. Effects of Consumption of a Fermented Dairy Product Containing the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on Common Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections in Shift Workers in a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29(3):455-468.
Objective: The risk of infection may be increased in people under stress such as shift workers. This study examined the effect of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (verum) on the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal common infectious diseases (CIDs) and on immune functions in healthy shift workers.
Methods: The study was single-center, randomized, double-blind, and controlled. Volunteers received 200 g/day of verum (n = 500) or control product (n = 500) for 3 months; 1-month follow-up was carried out.
Results: The cumulated number of CIDs (primary outcome) was not significantly different between groups. Because the Poisson distribution of the primary parameter did not fully fit the observed data, a post hoc categorical analysis was applied and showed a significantly lower cumulated number of CIDs in the verum group during the product consumption phase (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59–0.95, p = 0.017). Verum also reduced the proportion of volunteers experiencing at least 1 CID (43% vs. 51%, p = 0.005), increased the time to the first occurrence of CID (p = 0.017) in the whole population, and reduced the cumulated number of CIDs in the subgroup of smokers (p = 0.033). In the course of CID, cumulated duration of fever was lower in the verum group (in the whole study phase) (p = 0.022), and an increase in leukocyte, neutrophil, and natural killer (NK) cell counts and activity (p = 0.047 to p < 0.001) was observed compared with control group. Verum was safe and well tolerated.
Conclusion: The results indicate that daily consumption of a fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 could reduce the risk of common infections in stressed individuals such as shift workers.
Ouwehand A, Leyer G, Carcano D. Probiotics reduce incidence and duration of respiratory tract infection symptoms in 3- to 5-year-old children. Pediatrics 2008;121; S115.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the host.
Our aim was to investigate whether consumption of probiotics would be able to reduce symptoms of respiratory tract infections during the winter season.
Children aged 3 to 5 years were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to receive placebo (n = 92), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) (n = 77), or a combination of L acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (NCFM+Bi-07) (n = 79). Probiotics were consumed daily at a dose of 1010 colony-forming units for 6 months from November to April. The study was performed in Shanghai, China, and approved by the local authorities.
The incidence of fever was reduced by 63% in the NCFM+Bi-07 group and by 48% in the NCFM group. Cough was reduced by 54% in the NCFM+Bi-07 group and by 42% in the NCFM group. Runny nose was reduced by 44% in the NCFM+Bi-07 group and by 9% in the NCFM group; the latter result was not significant. Antibiotic use was reduced by 80% in the NCFM+Bi-07 group and by 68% in the NCFM group. Children in the placebo group had, on average, 6.5 days with symptoms, those in the NCFM group had 4.5 days with symptoms, and those in the NCFM+Bi-07 group had 3.4 days with symptoms.
Daily consumption of NCFM and Bi-07 and of NCFM alone significantly reduced the incidence and duration of respiratory tract infection symptoms in children. The combination of the 2 probiotics tended to perform better than the NCFM alone
J Nutr ’10: Expert group provides concrete examples of the benefits and gaps in human probiotic research
Rijkers G, Bengmark S, Enck P, et al. Guidance for Substantiating the Evidence for Beneficial Effects of Probiotics: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Research. J Nutr 2010;140(3):671S-676S.
Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is a growing interest in probiotics within the scientific community, with consumers, and in the food industry.
The interactions between the gut and intestinal microbiota and between resident and transient microbiota define a new arena in physiology, an understanding of which would shed light on the “cross-talk” between humans and microbes. The different beneficial effects of specific probiotic strains may be translated into different health claims. However, there is a need for comprehensive and harmonized guidelines on the assessment of the characteristics and efficacy of probiotics and of foods containing them.
An international expert group of ILSI has evaluated the published evidence of the functionality of different probiotics in 4 areas of (human) application: 1) metabolism, 2) chronic intestinal inflammatory and functional disorders, 3) infections, and 4) allergy. Based on the existing evidence, concrete examples of demonstration of benefits and gaps are listed, and guidelines and recommendations are defined that should help design the next generation of probiotic studies.
Eur J Clin Nutr ’00: B. lactis shown to enhance natural immunity among health elderly in a controlled trial
Arunachalam K, Gill H, Chandra R. Enhancement of natural immune function by dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54(3):263-267.
To determine the effects of dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis (strain HN019, DR10) on natural immunity.
A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting:: Janeway Medical Centre, Memorial University, St Johns, Newfoundland. Subjects: Twenty-five healthy elderly volunteers (median age 69 y; range 60-83 y). Interventions: Twelve control subjects consumed 180 ml low-fat/low-lactose milk twice daily for a period of 6 weeks; 13 test subjects consumed milk supplemented with 1.5 × 1011 colony-forming units of B. lactis twice daily. Indices of natural immunity, including interferon production, phagocytic capacity and phagocyte-mediated bactericidal activity, were determined via peripheral blood at 0, 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-trial commencement.
Subjects who consumed milk containing B. lactis for 6 weeks produced significantly enhanced levels of interferon-alpha, upon stimulation of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, in comparison to the placebo control group who received milk alone. There were also significant increases in polymorphonuclear cell phagocytic capacity among test group subjects, following consumption of milk supplemented with B. lactis, while individuals who consumed B. lactis-supplemented milk or milk alone showed enhanced phagocyte-mediated bactericidal activity.
The results demonstrate that dietary consumption of B. lactis HN019 can enhance natural immunity in healthy elderly subjects, and that a relatively short-term dietary regime (6 weeks) is sufficient to impart measurable improvements in immunity that may offer significant health benefits to consumers.