Archive for category Infant & Child Health
Tabbers MM, de Milliano Roseboom MG, Benninga MA. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study. Nutr J, 2011; 10:19.
Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) showed a significant increase in defecation frequency.
The aim of this pilot study was to determine if Bifidobacterium breve is effective in the treatment of childhood constipation.
Children, 3 to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were eligible for this study. During 4 weeks, children received one sachet of powder daily, containing 108- 1010 CFU Bifidobacterium breve. Furthermore, children were instructed to try to defecate on the toilet for 5-10 minutes after each meal and to complete a standardized bowel diary daily. The primary outcome measure was change in defecation frequency. Secondary outcome measures were stool consistency using the Bristol stool scale frequency of episodes of faecal incontinence, pain during defecation, frequency of abdominal pain, frequency of adverse effects (nausea, diarrhoea and bad taste), and frequency of intake of bisacodyl.
Twenty children (75% male, mean age 7.4) were included in this pilot study. The defecation frequency per week significantly increased from 0.9 (0-2) at baseline to 4.9 (0-21) in week 4 (p < 0.01). The mean stool consistency score increased from 2.6 (2-4) at baseline to 3.5 (1-6) in week 4 (p = 0.03). The number of faecal incontinence episodes per week significantly decreased from 9.0 (0-35) at baseline to 1.5 (0-7) in week 4 (p < 0.01).
Abdominal pain episodes per week significantly decreased from 4.2 (0-7) at baseline to 1.9 (0-7) in week 4 (p = 0.01). No side effects occurred.
Bifidobacterium breve is effective in increasing stool frequency in children with functional constipation. Furthermore it has a positive effect with respect to stool consistency, decreasing the number of faecal incontinence episodes and in diminishing abdominal pain. A randomized placebo controlled trial is required to confirm these data.
Kotowska, M. et al. Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21(5):583-590.
Co-treatment with Saccharomyces boulardii appears to lower the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in adults receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics.
To determine whether S. boulardii prevents antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children.
A total of 269 children (aged 6 months to 14 years) with otitis media and/or respiratory tract infections were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in which they received standard antibiotic treatment plus 250 mg of S. boulardii (experimental group, n = 132) or a placebo (control group, n = 137) orally twice daily for the duration of antibiotic treatment. Analyses were based on allocated treatment and included data from 246 children.
Patients receiving S. boulardii had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea (> or =3 loose or watery stools/day for > or =48 h occurring during or up to 2 weeks after the antibiotic therapy) than those receiving placebo [nine of 119 (8%) vs. 29 of 127 (23%), relative risk: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.7]. S. boulardii also reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile or otherwise unexplained diarrhoea) compared with placebo [four of 119 (3.4%) vs. 22 of 127 (17.3%), relative risk: 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.5]. No adverse events were observed.
This is the first randomized-controlled trial evidence that S. boulardii effectively reduces the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children.
J Ped Gastro Nutr ’99: Study reports differences in gut flora dependent on birth type; vaginal or cesarean delivery
Grönlund MM, et al. Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: Permanent changes in intestinal flora after Cesarean delivery. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999;28:19-25.
Newborn infants in modern maternity hospitals are subject to numerous factors that affect normal intestinal colonization–for example, cesarean delivery and antimicrobial agents. To study the duration of the effect of external factors on intestinal colonization, two groups of infants with different delivery methods were investigated.
The fecal flora of 64 healthy infants was studied prospectively. Thirty-four infants were delivered vaginally, and 30 by cesarean birth with antibiotic prophylaxis administered to their mothers before the delivery. The fecal flora was cultured on nonselective and selective media in infants 3 to 5, 10, 30, 60, and 180 days of age. Gastrointestinal signs were recorded daily by the mothers for 2 months.
The fecal colonization of infants born by cesarean delivery was delayed. Bifidobacterium-like bacteria and Lactobacillus-like bacteria colonization rates reached the rates of vaginally delivered infants at 1 month and 10 days, respectively. Infants born by cesarean delivery were significantly less often colonized with bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis group than were vaginally delivered infants: At 6 months the rates were 36% and 76%, respectively (p=0.009). The occurrence of gastrointestinal signs did not differ between the study groups.
This study shows for the first time that the primary gut flora in infants born by cesarean delivery may be disturbed for up to 6 months after the birth. The clinical relevance of these changes is unknown, and even longer follow-up is needed to establish how long-lasting these alterations of the primary gut flora can be.
BMJ ’07: Study reports benefit of select probiotics compared to rehydration solution for acute diarrhea in children
Canani RB, et al. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: Randomised clinical trial of five different preparations. BMJ 2007;335(7615):340.
To compare the efficacy of five probiotic preparations recommended to parents in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children.
Randomised controlled clinical trial in collaboration with family paediatricians over 12 months.
Children aged 3-36 months visiting a family paediatrician for acute diarrhoea.
Children’s parents were randomly assigned to receive written instructions to purchase a specific probiotic product: oral rehydration solution (control group); Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG; Saccharomyces boulardii; Bacillus clausii; mix of L delbrueckii var bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, L acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum; or Enterococcus faecium SF68.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and daily number and consistency of stools. Secondary outcomes were
duration of vomiting and fever and rate of admission to hospital. Safety and tolerance were also recorded.
571 children were allocated to intervention. Median duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter (P<0.001) in children who received L rhamnosus strain GG (78.5 hours) and the mix of four bacterial strains (70.0 hours) than in children who received oral rehydration solution alone (115.0 hours). One day after the first probiotic administration, the daily number of stools was significantly lower (P<0.001) in children who received L rhamnosus strain GG and in those who received the probiotic mix than in the other groups. The remaining preparations did not affect primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were similar in all groups.
Not all commercially available probiotic preparations are effective in children with acute diarrhoea. Paediatricians should choose bacterial preparations based on effectiveness data.
Peds 07: Randomized trial reports probiotic L. reuteri significantly reduces colic in newborns, compared to standard treatment; no adverse effects
Savino F, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: A prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 2007;119(1):e 124-130.
In our cohort, L. reuteri improved colicky symptoms in breastfed infants within 1 week of treatment, compared with simethicone, which suggests that probiotics may have a role in the treatment of infantile colic.
Cochrane ’07: Systematic review reports promise for probiotics in children with AAD; strain and dose matter
Johnston BC, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Danish Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004827.
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) via restoration of the gut microflora. Antibiotics are prescribed frequently in children and AAD is common in this population.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. To assess adverse events associated with the use of probiotics when co-administered with antibiotics in children.
SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL , AMED, and the Web of Science (inception to August 2006) were searched along with specialized registers including the Cochrane IBD/FBD Review Group, CISCOM, Chalmers PedCAM Research Register and trial registries from inception to 2005. Letters were sent to authors of included trials, nutra/pharmaceutical companies, and experts in the field requesting additional information on ongoing or unpublished trials. Conference proceedings, dissertation abstracts, and reference lists from included and relevant articles were hand searched.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized, parallel, controlled (placebo, active, or no treatment) trials comparing co-administered probiotics with antibiotics for the prevention of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use in children (0 to 18 years).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Methodological quality assessment and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors (BCJ, AS). Dichotomous data (incidence of diarrhea, adverse events) were combined using pooled relative risks, and continuous data (mean duration of diarrhea, mean daily stool frequency) as weighted mean differences, along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Adverse events were summarized using risk difference. For overall pooled results on the incidence of diarrhea, a priori sensitivity analyses included per protocol versus intention to treat, random versus fixed effects, and methodological quality criterion. Subgroup analysis were conducted on probiotic strain, dose, definition of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and antibiotic agent.
MAIN RESULTS: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Trials included treatment with either Lactobacilli spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., or Saccharomyces boulardii alone or in combination. Six studies used a single strain probiotic agent and four combined two probiotic strains. The per protocol analysis for 9/10 trials reporting on the incidence of diarrhea show statistically significant results favouring probiotics over active/non active controls (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.74). However, intention to treat analysis showed non-significant results overall (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.50 to 1.63). Five of ten trials monitored for adverse events (n = 647); none reported a serious adverse event.
AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics show promise for the prevention of pediatric AAD. While per protocol analysis yields treatment effect estimates that are both statistically and clinically significant, as does analysis of high quality studies, the estimate from the intention to treat analysis was not statistically significant.
Future studies should involve probiotic strains and doses with the most promising evidence (e.g., Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus sporogenes, Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day). Research done to date does not permit determination of the effect of age (e.g., infant versus older children) or antibiotic duration (e.g., 5 days versus 10 days).
Future trials would benefit from a validated primary outcome measure for antibiotic-associated diarrhea that is sensitive to change and reflects what treatment effect clinicians, parents, and children consider important. The current data are promising, but it is premature to routinely recommend probiotics for the prevention of pediatric AAD.
Peds ’02: Meta-analysis reports Lactobacillus is safe and effective as a treatment for children with acute diarrhea
van Niel et al. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2002;109(4):678-684.
OBJECTIVE: Childhood diarrhea accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple studies in children have shown that Lactobacillus, administered orally, may have antidiarrheal properties. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled studies to assess whether treatment with Lactobacillus improves clinical outcomes in children with acute infectious diarrhea.
METHODS: Studies were sought in bibliographic databases of traditional biomedical as well as complementary and alternative medicine literature published from 1966 to 2000. Search terms were “competitive inhibition,” “diarrhea,” “gastroenteritis,” “Lactobacillus,” “probiotic,” “rotavirus,” and “yog(h)urt.” We included studies that were adequately randomized, blinded, controlled trials in which the treatment group received Lactobacillus and the control group received an adequate placebo and that reported clinical outcome measures of diarrhea intensity. These inclusion criteria were applied by blind review and consensus. The original search yielded 26 studies, 9 of which met the criteria. Multiple observers independently extracted study characteristics and clinical outcomes. Data sufficient to perform meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus on diarrhea duration and diarrhea frequency on day 2 were contained in 7 and 3 of the included studies, respectively.
RESULTS: Summary point estimates indicate a reduction in diarrhea duration of 0.7 days (95% confidence interval: 0.3-1.2 days) and a reduction in diarrhea frequency of 1.6 stools on day 2 of treatment (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.6 fewer stools) in the participants who received Lactobacillus compared with those who received placebo. Details of treatment protocols varied among the studies. A preplanned subanalysis suggests a dose-effect relationship.
CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that Lactobacillus is safe and effective as a treatment for children with acute infectious diarrhea.
J Ped ’05: Controlled trial reports minimal benefit from single strain probiotic in children with IBS
Bausserman M, Michail S. The use of Lactobacillus GG in irritable bowel syndrome in children: a double-blind randomized control trial. J Pediatr. 2005;147(2):197-201.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus GG under randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled conditions would improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in children.
STUDY DESIGN: Fifty children fulfilling the Rome II criteria for IBS were given Lactobacillus GG or placebo for 6 weeks. Response to therapy was recorded and collected on a weekly basis using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS).
RESULTS: Lactobacillus GG was not superior to placebo in relieving abdominal pain (40.0% response rate in the placebo group vs 44.0% in the Lactobacillus GG group; P=.774). There was no difference in the other gastrointestinal symptoms, except for a lower incidence of perceived abdominal distention (P=.02 favoring Lactobacillus GG).
CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus GG was not superior to placebo in the treatment of abdominal pain in children with IBS but may help relieve such symptoms as perceived abdominal distention.
Clin Nut ’05: CRT shows shorter duration and fewer symptoms of cold in otherwise healthy adults supplementing probiotics
De Vrese M. et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: A double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2005 Aug;24(4):481-491.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 (5 x 10(7) cfu/tablet) during at least 3 months influences the severity of symptoms and the incidence and duration of the common cold.
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was performed over at least 3 months during two winter/spring periods. Four hundred and seventy nine healthy adults (aged 18-67) were supplemented daily with vitamins and minerals with or without the probiotic bacteria. Cellular immune parameters were evaluated in a randomly drawn subgroup of 122 volunteers before and after 14 days of supplementation. During common cold episodes, the participants recorded symptoms daily. Stool samples were collected before and after 14 days of probiotic supplementation to quantify fecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria using qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: The total symptom score, the duration of common cold episodes, and days with fever during an episode were lower in the probiotic-treated group than in the control group: 79.3+/-7.4 vs. 102.5+/-12.2 points (P = 0.056), 7.0+/-0.5 vs. 8.9+/-1.0 days (P = 0.045), 0.24+/-0.1 vs. 1.0+/-0.3 days (P = 0.017). A significantly higher enhancement of cytotoxic plus T suppressor cells (CD8+) and a higher enhancement of T helper cells (CD4+) was observed in the probiotic-treated group. Fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increased significantly after probiotic supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The intake of probiotic bacteria during at least 3 months significantly shortened common cold episodes by almost 2 days and reduced the severity of symptoms.
J All Clin Imm ’97: Study suggests probiotics benefit people with food allergies and atopic dermatitis
Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: A novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-185.
The gastrointestinal microflora is an important constituent of the gut mucosal defense barrier. We have previously shown that a human intestinal floral strain, Lactobacillus GG (ATCC 53103), promotes local antigen-specific immune responses (particularly in the IgA class), prevents permeability defects, and confers controlled antigen absorption.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunologic effects of cow’s milk elimination without (n = 14) and with (n = 13) the addition of Lactobacillus GG (5 x 10(8) colony-forming units/gm formula) in an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with atopic eczema and cow’s milk allergy. The second part of the study involved 10 breast-fed infants who had atopic eczema and cow’s milk allergy. In this group Lactobacillus GG was given to nursing mothers.
The severity of atopic eczema was assessed by clinical scoring. The concentrations of fecal alpha 1- antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein were determined as markers of intestinal inflammation before and after dietary intervention.
The clinical score of atopic dermatitis improved significantly during the 1-month study period in infants treated with the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula fortified with Lactobacillus GG. The concentration of alpha 1-antitrypsin decreased significantly in this group (p = 0.03) but not in the group receiving the whey formula without Lactobacillus GG (p = 0.68). In parallel, the median (lower quartile to upper quartile) concentration of fecal tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased significantly in this group, from 709 pg/gm (91 to 1131 pg/gm) to 34 pg/gm (19 to 103 pg/gm) (p = 0.003), but not in those receiving the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula only (p = 0.38). The concentration of fecal eosinophil cationic protein remained unaltered during therapy.
These results suggest that probiotic bacteria may promote endogenous barrier mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and by alleviating intestinal inflammation, may act as a useful tool in the treatment of food allergy.