Archive for category Cold & Flu
Clin Nutr ’10: CRT reports significant reduction in respiratory infections among children in day care centers with L. rhamnosus
Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdovic S, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr, 2010;29:312-316.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of our study was to investigate the role of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 281 children who attend day care centers. They were randomly allocated to receive LGG at a dose of 10(9) colony-forming units in 100ml of a fermented milk product (LGG group, n=139) or placebo that was the same post-pasteurized fermented milk product without LGG (placebo group, n=142) during the 3-month intervention period.
RESULTS: Compared to the placebo group, children in the LGG group had a significantly reduced risk of upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.82, NNT 5, 95% CI 4 to 10), a reduced risk of respiratory tract infections lasting longer than 3 days (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.78, NNT 5, 95% CI 4 to 11), and a significantly lower number of days with respiratory symptoms (p<0.001). There was no risk reduction in regard to lower respiratory tract infections (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.76). Compared with the placebo group, children in the LGG group had no significant reduction in the risk of gastrointestinal infections (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.06), vomiting episodes (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.24), and diarrheal episodes (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.11) as well as no reduction in the number of days with gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.063).
CONCLUSION: LGG administration can be recommended as a valid measure for decreasing the risk of upper respiratory tract infections in children attending day care centers.
Clin Nut ’05: CRT shows shorter duration and fewer symptoms of cold in otherwise healthy adults supplementing probiotics
De Vrese M. et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: A double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2005 Aug;24(4):481-491.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 (5 x 10(7) cfu/tablet) during at least 3 months influences the severity of symptoms and the incidence and duration of the common cold.
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was performed over at least 3 months during two winter/spring periods. Four hundred and seventy nine healthy adults (aged 18-67) were supplemented daily with vitamins and minerals with or without the probiotic bacteria. Cellular immune parameters were evaluated in a randomly drawn subgroup of 122 volunteers before and after 14 days of supplementation. During common cold episodes, the participants recorded symptoms daily. Stool samples were collected before and after 14 days of probiotic supplementation to quantify fecal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria using qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: The total symptom score, the duration of common cold episodes, and days with fever during an episode were lower in the probiotic-treated group than in the control group: 79.3+/-7.4 vs. 102.5+/-12.2 points (P = 0.056), 7.0+/-0.5 vs. 8.9+/-1.0 days (P = 0.045), 0.24+/-0.1 vs. 1.0+/-0.3 days (P = 0.017). A significantly higher enhancement of cytotoxic plus T suppressor cells (CD8+) and a higher enhancement of T helper cells (CD4+) was observed in the probiotic-treated group. Fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increased significantly after probiotic supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The intake of probiotic bacteria during at least 3 months significantly shortened common cold episodes by almost 2 days and reduced the severity of symptoms.
Sazawal S, Dhingra U, et al. 2010 Prebiotic and Probiotic Fortified Milk in Prevention of Morbidities among Children: Community-Based, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. PLoS 2010; 5(8) e12164.
Recent reviews suggest common infectious diseases continue to be a major cause of death among preschool children in developing countries. Identification of feasible strategies to combat this disease burden is an important public health need. We evaluated the efficacy of adding prebiotic oligosaccharide and probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 to milk, in preventing diarrhea, respiratory infections and severe illnesses, in children aged 1–4 years as part of a four group study design, running two studies simultaneously.
Methods and Findings
In a community based double-masked, randomized controlled trial, children 1–3 years of age, willing to participate, were randomly allocated to receive either control milk (Co; n = 312) or the same milk fortified with 2.4 g/day of prebiotic oligosaccharide and 1.9×107 colony forming unit (c.f.u)/day of probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (PP; n = 312). Children were followed up for 1 year providing data for 1–4 years. Biweekly household surveillance was conducted to gather information on compliance and morbidity. Both study groups were comparable at baseline; compliance to intervention was similar.
Overall, there was no effect of prebiotic and probiotic on diarrhea (6% reduction, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −1 to 12%; p = 0.08). Incidence of dysentery episodes was reduced by 21% (95% CI: 0 to 38%; p = 0.05). Incidence of pneumonia was reduced by 24% (95% CI: 0 to 42%; p = 0.05) and severe acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) by 35% (95% CI: 0 to 58%; p = 0.05). Compared to children in Co group, children in PP group had 16% (95% CI: 5 to 26%, p = 0.004) and 5% (95% CI: 0 to 10%; p = 0.05) reduction in days with severe illness and high fever respectively.
Milk can be a good medium for delivery of prebiotic and probiotic and resulted in significant reduction of dysentery, respiratory morbidity and febrile illness. Overall, impact of diarrhea was not significant. These findings need confirmation in other settings.
Peds ’09: Fewer cold symptoms (cough, fever, runny nose) in preschool children given probiotics, compared to placebo; children also missed fewer days at school
Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic Effects on Cold and Influenza-Like Symptom Incidence and Duration in Children. Pediatrics, 2009;124(2):172-179.
Objective: Probiotic consumption effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration were evaluated in healthy children during the winter season.
Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 326 eligible children (3–5 years of age) were assigned randomly to receive placebo (N = 104), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (N = 110), or L acidophilus NCFM in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis Bi-07 (N = 112). Children were treated twice daily for 6 months.
Results: Relative to the placebo group, single and combination probiotics reduced fever incidence by 53.0% (P = .0085) and 72.7% (P = .0009), coughing incidence by 41.4% (P = .027) and 62.1% (P = .005), and rhinorrhea incidence by 28.2% (P = .68) and 58.8% (P = .03), respectively. Fever, coughing, and rhinorrhea duration was decreased significantly, relative to placebo, by 32% (single strain; P = .0023) and 48% (strain combination; P < .001). Antibiotic use incidence was reduced, relative to placebo, by 68.4% (single strain; P = .0002) and 84.2% (strain combination; P < .0001). Subjects receiving probiotic products had significant reductions in days absent from group child care, by 31.8% (single strain; P = .002) and 27.7% (strain combination; P < .001), compared with subjects receiving placebo treatment.
Conclusion: Daily dietary probiotic supplementation for 6 months was a safe effective way to reduce fever, rhinorrhea, and cough incidence and duration and antibiotic prescription incidence, as well as the number of missed school days attributable to illness, for children 3 to 5 years of age.
BMJ ’01: Young children (ages 1-6 y) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus had fewer colds and fewer days-absent from day care
Hatakka K, Erkki Savilahti E, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. British Medical J, 2001;322:1327
Objective: To examine whether long term consumption of a probiotic milk could reduce gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children in day care centers.
Design: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study over seven months. Setting: 18 day care centres in Helsinki, Finland. Participants: 571 healthy children aged 1-6 years: 282 (mean (SD) age 4.6 (1.5) years) in the intervention group and 289 (mean (SD) age 4.4 (1.5) years) in the control group.
Intervention: Milk with or without Lactobacillus GG. Average daily consumption of milk in both groups was 260 ml. Main outcome measures: Number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, absences from day care because of illness, respiratory tract infections diagnosed by a doctor, and course of antibiotics.
Results: Children in the Lactobacillus group had fewer days of absence from day care because of illness (4.9 (95% confidence interval 4.4 to 5.5) v 5.8 (5.3 to 6.4) days, 16% difference, P=0.03; age adjusted 5.1 (4.6 to 5.6) v 5.7 (5.2 to 6.3) days, 11% difference, P=0.09). There was also a relative reduction of 17% in the number of children suffering from respiratory infections with complications and lower respiratory tract infections (unadjusted absolute % reduction 8.6 ( 17.2 to 0.1), P=0.05; age adjusted odds ratio 0.75 (0.52 to 1.09), P=0.13) and a 19% relative reduction in antibiotic treatments for respiratory infection (unadjusted absolute % reduction 9.6 ( 18.2 to 1.0), P=0.03; adjusted odds ratio 0.72 (0.50 to 1.03), P=0.08) in the Lactobacillus group.
Conclusions: Lactobacillus GG may reduce respiratory infections and their severity among children in day care. The effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus GG were modest but consistently in the same direction.